Sumerian is the oldest known written language in the world. This ancient language was used by the Sumerians, who lived in southern Mesopotamia (present-day Iraq) from around 3500 BC to 300 AD.
1. Introduce the Sumerian language
2. Discuss the contributions of the Sumerians to civilization
3. Describe the Sumerians as a peaceful people who lived in city-states
4. Explain the religion of the Sumerians
5. Discuss the Sumerian calendar
6. Describe the Epic of Gilgamesh
7. Summarize the legacy of the Sumerians in the modern world.
Although it is a difficult language to learn, those who are interested in ancient civilizations and languages may find it rewarding to study. Sumerian was a highly developed language, with complex grammar and a large vocabulary. It was used for religious texts, royal inscriptions, and literary works, as well as for everyday communication.
The written form of Sumerians consisted of pictographs, or picture words, which were inscribed on clay tablets. Over time, the pictographs evolved into cuneiform, a system of wedge-shaped marks that were made with a reed stylus on damp clay. The cuneiform script was used by the ancient Akkadians and Babylonians, as well as by the Assyrians and Persians. It is one of the earliest known forms of writing.
The Sumerians also developed a form of picture-writing called hieroglyphics, which was used by the Egyptians. Hieroglyphics consisted of small pictures that represented objects, people, or ideas. These pictures were inscribed on stone tablets or carved into the walls of temples and tombs.
The ancient Greeks and Romans also used hieroglyphics, but they misunderstood the meaning of the pictures and wrote them down as alphabetic letters. This alphabet eventually became the basis for our modern alphabet. The Sumerians were highly advanced people who made many contributions to civilization. They developed the first known system of writing, as well as the first known form of government.
They also invented the wheel, the plow, and the sailboat. The Sumerians were skilled artisans who created beautiful works of art in gold, silver, and lapis lazuli. They were also architects and engineers who built some of the world’s first cities, including Uruk, Ur, Lagash, and Nippur.
The Sumerians were peaceful people who lived in city-states that were ruled by kings. Each city-state had its own army, laws, and customs. The Sumerians believed in many gods and goddesses, who they thought controlled the forces of nature.
The Sumerian Calendar:
– The Sumerians were some of the earliest people to develop a system of measuring time.
– Their calendar was based on the lunar cycle, and it consisted of 12 months, each with 30 days.
– They also had a 6-day week, which was later adopted by other cultures.
They built temples to honor these deities and offered sacrifices to them. The Sumerians were also polytheistic, which means they believed in more than one god. The most important gods and goddesses in the Sumerian pantheon were Anu, Enlil, Enki, Ninhursag, and Inanna.
The Sumerians developed their own calendar and wrote works of literature, including the Epic of Gilgamesh, which is one of the oldest known works of literature in the world. The Sumerians were highly sophisticated people who made many important contributions to civilization. Although their language is no longer spoken, their legacy continues to be felt in the modern world.
The Epic of Gilgamesh:
The Epic of Gilgamesh is a Sumerian epic poem that tells the story of Gilgamesh, the king of Uruk. The poem was written in Sumerian cuneiform script, and it is one of the oldest known pieces of literature in the world. The Epic of Gilgamesh is an important cultural document that provides insight into the Sumerian culture and religion.
The Sumerians were one of the earliest known civilizations, and they left a lasting legacy on human civilization. Their contributions to mathematics, astronomy, agriculture, and engineering are still celebrated today.
Thanks for reading! I hope you enjoyed learning about the Sumerians.